A branch of engineering that encompasses the conception, design, construction, and management of residential and commercial buildings and structures, water supply facilities, and transportation systems for goods and people, as well as control of the environment for the maintenance and improvement of the quality of life. Civil engineering includes planning and design professionals in both the public and private sectors, contractors, builders, educators, and researchers.
Sub-disciplines of civil engineering
1. General engineering
General civil engineering is concerned with the overall interface of human created fixed projects with the greater world.
2. Structural engineering
Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, and other structures.
3. Fire protection engineering
Fire protection engineering, also called 'fire safety engineering' is the practice of application of science and engineering principles and experience to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire.
4. Geotechnical engineering
Geotechnical engineering is primarily concerned with the interaction of structures with earth materials, and structures constructed from earth materials.
5. Transportation engineering
Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community.
6. Environmental engineering
Environmental engineering deals with the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination.
7. Hydraulic engineering
Hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water.
8. Water resources engineering
Water resources engineering is concerned with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource).
9. Construction engineering
Construction engineering involves planning and execution of the designs from transportation, site development, hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineers.
10 . Materials science
Civil engineering also includes elements of materials science. Construction materials with broad applications in civil engineering include ceramics such as Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete, metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers such as polymethylaccrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers.
Surveying is the process by which a surveyor measures certain dimensions that generally occur on the surface of the Earth.